Fragmented Data

(This is a follow-up to my earlier post on Distributed Data)

One of the more interesting design sessions today at the OpenStack Design Summit was focused on Nova Cells V2, which is the effort to rework the way cells work in Nova. Briefly, cells are a mechanism for allowing separate independent deployments to work as a single cloud, primarily as a way to provide horizontal scalability. They also have other uses for operators, but that’s the main reason for them. And as separate deployments, they have their own API service, conductor service, message queue, and database. There are several advantages that this kind of independence offers, with failure isolation being one of the biggest. By this I mean that something goes wrong and a cell is unreachable, it doesn’t affect the performance of the remaining cells.

There are tradeoffs with any approach, and this one is no different. One glaring issue that came up at that session is that there is no simple way to get a global view of your cloud. The example that was discussed was the common case of listing all your instances, which would require querying each cell independently, aggregating the results, and then sorting the aggregated records. For small clouds this process is negligible, but as the size grows, so does the overhead and complexity. It is particularly problematic for something that requires multiple calls, like pagination. Let’s consider a site with thousands of instances spread across dozens of cells. Typically when querying a large list like that, the API will return the first few, and include a link for the next batch. With a fragmented database, this will require some form of centralized caching approach, or, if that’s not feasible or the cache is stale, re-running the same costly query, aggregation, and sorting process for each page of data requested. With that, any gain that might have been realized by separating the databases will be more than offset by a need for a way to efficiently recombine that data. This isn’t only a cost for more memory/CPU for the API service to handle the aggregation and caching, which will only need to be borne by the larger cloud operating companies. It is an ongoing cost of complexity to the developers and maintainers of the Nova codebase to handle this, and every new part of Nova will be similarly difficult to fit.

There are other places where this fragmented database design will cause complexity, such as having the Scheduler require a database connection to every cell, and then query every cell on each request, followed by aggregating the results… see the pattern? Splitting a database to improve performance, or sharding, only makes sense if you shard along a line that logically separates the data so that each shard can be queried efficiently. We’re not doing that in the design of cells.

It’s not too late. There is a project that makes minimal changes to the oslo.db driver to allow replacing the SQLAlchemy and MySQL database that underpins Nova with a distributed database (they used Redis, but it doesn’t depend on Redis). It should really be investigated further before we create a huge pile of technical and design debt by fragmenting the data in Nova.

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