Last week was the OpenStack Summit, which was held in Sydney, NSW, Australia. This was my first summit since the split with the PTG, and it felt very different than previous summits. In the past there was a split between the business community part of the summit and the Design Summit, which was where the dev teams met to plan the work for the upcoming cycle. With the shift to the PTG, there is no move developer-centric work at the summit, so I was free to attend sessions instead of being buried in the Nova room the whole time. That also meant that I was free to explore the hallway track more than in the past, and as a result I had many interesting conversations with fellow OpenStackers.
There was also only one keynote session on Monday morning. I found this a welcome change, because despite getting some really great information, there are the inevitable vendor keynotes that bore you to tears. Some vendors get it right: they showed the cool scientific research that their OpenStack cloud was enabling, and knowing that I’m helping to make that happen is always a positive feeling. But other vendors just drone about things like the number of cores they are running, and the tools that they use to get things running and keep them running. Now don’t get me wrong: that’s very useful information, but it’s not keynote material. I’d rather see it written up on their website as a reference document.
On Monday after the keynote we had a lively session for the API-SIG, with a lot of SDK developers participating. One issue was that of keeping up with API changes and deprecating older API versions. In many cases, though, the reason people use an SDK is to be insulated from that sort of minutiae; they just want it to work. Sometimes that comes at a price of not having access to the latest features offered by the API. This is where the SDK developer has to determine what would work best for their target users.
Another discussion was how to best use microversions within an SDK. The consensus was to pin each request to the particular microversion that provides the desired functionality, rather than make all requests at the same version. There was a suggestion to have aliases for the latest microversion for each release; e.g., “OpenStack-API-Version: compute pike” would return the latest behaviors that were available for the Nova Pike release. This idea was rejected, as it dilutes the meaning and utility of what a microversion is.
On the Tuesday I helped with the Nova onboarding session, along with Dan Smith and Melanie Witt. We covered things like the layout of code in the Nova repository, and also some of the “magic” that handles the RPC communication among services within Nova. While the people attending seemed to be interested in this, it was hard to gauge the effectiveness for them, as we got precious few questions, and those we did get really didn’t have much to do with what we covered.
That evening the folks from Aptira hired a fairly large party boat, and invited several people to attend. I was fortunate enough to be invited along with my wife, and we had a wonderful evening cruising around Sydney Harbour, with some delicious food and drink provided. I also got to meet and converse with several other IBMers.
There were other sessions I attended, but mostly out of curiosity about the subject. The only other session with anything worth reporting was with the Ironic team and their concerns about the change to scheduling by resource classes and traits. There was still a significant lack of understanding about how this will work for many in the room, which I interpret to mean that we who are creating the Placement service are not communicating this well enough. I was glad that I was able to clarify several things for those who had concerns, and I think that everyone had a better understanding of both how things are supposed to work, as well as what will be required to move their deployments forward.
One development I was especially interested in was the announcement of OpenLab, which will be especially useful for testing SDKs across multiple clouds. Many people attending the API-SIG session thought that they would want to take advantage of that for their SDK work.
My overall impression of the new Summit format is that, as a developer, it leaves a lot to be desired. Perhaps it was because the PTGs have become the place where all the real development planning happens, and so many of the people who I normally would have a chance to interact with simply didn’t come. The big benefit of in-person conferences is getting to know the new people who have joined the project, and re-establishing ties with those with whom you have worked for a while. If you are an OpenStack developer, the PTGs are essential; the Summits, no so much. It will be interesting to see how this new format evolves in the future.
If you’re interested in more in-depth coverage of what went on at the Summit, be sure to read the summary from Superuser.
The location was far away for me, but Sydney was wonderful! We took a few days afterwards to holiday down in Hobart, Tasmania, which made the long journey that much more worth the effort.
Last week was the second-ever OpenStack Project Teams Gathering, or PTG. It’s still an awkward name for a very productive conference.
This time the PTG was held in Denver, Colorado, at a hotel several miles outside of downtown Denver.
It was clear that the organizers from the OpenStack Foundation took the comments from the attendees of the first PTG in Atlanta to heart, as it seemed that none of the annoyances from Atlanta were an issue: there was no loud air conditioning, and the rooms were much less echo-y. The food was also a lot better!
As in Atlanta, Monday and Tuesday were set aside for cross-project sessions, with team sessions on Wednesday–Friday. Most of the first two days was taken up by the API-SIG discussions. There was a lot to talk about, and we managed to cover most of it. One main focus was how to expand our outreach to various groups, now that we have transitioned from a Working Group (WG) to a Special Interest Group (SIG). That may sound like a simple name change, but it represents the shift in direction from being only API developer-focused to reaching out to SDK developers and users.
We discussed several issues that had been identified ahead of time. The first was the format for single resources. The format for multiple resources has not been contentious; it looks like:
In English, a list of the returned resources in a dictionary with the resource type/name as the key. But for a single resource, there are several possibilities:
# Singular resource
# One-element list
# Dictionary keyed by resource name, single value
# Dictionary keyed by resource name, list of one value
None of these stood out as a clear winner, as we could come up with pros and cons for each. When that happens, we make consistency with the rest of OpenStack a priority, so elmiko agreed to survey the code base to get some numbers. If there is a clear preference within OpenStack, we can make that the recommended form.
Next was a very quick discussion of the microversion-parse library, and whether we should recommend it as an “official” tool for projects to use (we did). This would mean that the API-SIG would be undertaking ownership of the library, but as it’s very simple, this was not felt to be a significant burden.
We moved on to the topic of API testing tools. This idea had come up in the past: create a tool that would check how well an API conformed to the guidelines. We agreed once again that that would be a huge effort with very little practical benefit, and that we would not entertain that idea again.
Next up were some people from the Ironic team who had questions about what we would recommend for an API call that was expected to take a long time to complete. Blocking while the call completes could take several minutes, so that was not a good option. The two main options were to use a GET with an “action” as the resource, or POST with the action in the body. Using GET for this doesn’t fit well with RESTful principles, so POST was really the only option, as it is semantically fluid. The response should be a 202 Accepted, and contain the URI that can be called with GET to determine the status of the request. The Ironic team agreed to write up a more detailed description of their use case, which the API-SIG could then use as the base for an example of a guided review discussion.
Another topic that got a lot of discussion was Capabilities. This term is used in many contexts, so we were sure to distinguish among them.
What is this cloud capable of doing?
What actions are possible for this particular resource?
What actions are possible for this particular authenticated user?
We focused on the first type of capability, as it is important for cloud interoperability. There are ways to determine these things, but they might require a dozen API calls to get the information needed. There already is a proposal for creating a static file for clouds, so perhaps this can be expanded to cover all the capabilities that may be of interest to consumers of multiple clouds. This sort of root document would be very static and thus highly cacheable.
For the latter two types of capabilities, it was felt that there was no alternative to making the calls as needed. For example, a user might be able to create an instance of a certain size one minute, but a little later they would not because they’ve exceeded their quota. So for user interfaces such as Horizon, where, say, a button in the UI might be disabled if the user cannot perform that action, there does not seem to be a good way to simplify things.
We spent a good deal of time with a few SDK authors about some of the issues they are having, and how the API-SIG can help. As someone who works on the API creation side of things but who has also created an SDK, these discussions were of particular interest. Since this topic is fairly recent, most of the time was spent getting a feel for the issues that may be of interest. There was some talk of creating SDK guidelines, similar to the API guidelines, but that doesn’t seem like the best way to go. APIs have to be consumed by all sorts of different applications, so consistency is important. SDKs, on the other hand, are consumed by developers for that particular language. The best advice is to make your SDK as idiomatic as possible for the language so that the developers using your SDK will find it as usable as the rest of the language.
After the sessions on Tuesday, there was a pleasant happy hour, with the refreshments sponsored by IBM. It gave everyone a chance to talk to each other, and I had several interesting conversations with people working on different parts of OpenStack.
Starting Wednesday I was in the Nova room for most of the time. The day started off with the Pike retrospective, where we ideally take a look at how things went during the last cycle, and identify the things that we could do better. This should then be used to help make the next cycle go more smoothly. The Nova team can certainly be pretty dysfunctional at times, and in past retrospectives people have tried to address that. But rather than help people understand the effects of their actions better, such comments were typically met by sheer defensiveness, and as a result none of the negative behaviors changed. So this time no one brought up the problems with personal interactions, and we settled on a vague “do shit earlier” motto. What this means is that some people felt that the spec process dragged on for much too long, and that we would be better off if we kept that short and started coding sooner. No process for cutting short the time spent on specs was discussed, though, so it isn’t clear how this will be carried out. The main advantage of coding sooner is that many of these changes will break existing behaviors, and it is better to find that out early in the cycle rather than just before freeze. The downside is that we may start down a particular path early, and due to shortening the spec process, not realize that it isn’t the right (or best) path until we have already written a bunch of code. This will most likely result in a sunk cost fallacy argument in favor of patching the code and taking on more technical debt. Let’s hope that I’m wrong about this.
We moved on to Cells V2. On of the top priorities is listing instances in a multi-cell deployment. One proposed solution was to have Searchlight monitor instance notifications from the cells, and aggregate that information so that the API layer could have access to all cell instance info. That approach was discarded in favor of doing cross-cell DB queries. Another priority was the addition of alternate build candidates being sent to the cell, so that after a request to build an instance is scheduled to a cell, the local cell conductor can retry a failed build without having to go back through the entire scheduling process. I’ve already got some code for doing this, and will be working on it in the coming weeks.
In the afternoon we discussed Placement. One of the problems we uncovered late in the Pike cycle was that the Placement model we created didn’t properly handle migrations, as migrations involve resources from two separate hosts being “in use” at the same time for a single instance. While we got some quick fixes in Pike, we want to implement a better solution early in Queens. The plan is to add a migration UUID, and make that the consumer of the resources on the target provider. This will greatly simplify the accounting necessary to handle resources during migrations.
We moved on to discuss the status of Traits. Traits are the qualitative part of resources, and we have continued to make progress in being able to select resource providers who have particular traits. There is also work being done to have the virt drivers report traits on things such as CPUs.
We moved on to the biggest subject in Placement: nested resource providers. Implementing this will enable us to model resources such as PCI devices that have a number of Physical Functions (PFs), each of which can supply a number of Virtual Functions (VFs). That much is easy enough to understand, but when you start linking particular VCPUs to particular NUMA nodes, it gets messy very quickly. So while we outlined several of these complex relationships during the session, we all agreed that completing all that was not realistic for Queens. We do want to keep those complex cases in mind, though, so that anything we do in Queens won’t have to be un-done in Rocky.
We briefly touched on the question of when we would separate Placement out into its own service. This has been the plan from the beginning, and once again we decided to punt this to a future cycle. That’s too bad, as keeping it as part of Nova is beginning to blur the boundaries of things a bit. But it’s not super-critical, so…
We then moved on to discuss Ironic, and the discussion centered mainly on the changes in how an Ironic node is represented in Placement. To recap, we used to use a hack that pretended that an Ironic node, which must be consumed as a single unit, was a type of VM, so that the existing paradigm of selection based on CPU/RAM/disk would work. So in Ocata we started allowing operators to configure a node’s resource_class attribute; all nodes having the same physical hardware would be the same class, and there would always be an inventory of 1 for each node. Flavors were modified in Pike to accept an Ironic custom resource class or the old VM-ish method of selection, but in Queens, Ironic nodes will only be selected based on this class. This has been a request from operators of large Ironic deployments for some time, and we’re close to realizing this goal. But, of course, not everyone is happy about this. There are some operators who want to be able to select nodes based on “fuzzy” criteria, like they were able to in the “old days”. Their use cases were put forth, but they weren’t considered compelling enough. You can’t just consume 2 GPUs on a 4-GPU node: you must consume them all. There may be ways to accomplish what these operators want using traits, but in order to determine that, they will have to detail their use cases much more completely.
Thursday began with a Nova-Cinder discussion, which I confess I did not pay a lot of attention to, except for the parts about evolving and maintaining the API between the two. The afternoon was focused on Nova-Neutron, with a lot of discussion about improving the interaction between the two services during instance migration. There was some discussion about bandwidth-based scheduling, but as this depends on Placement getting nested resource providers done, it was agreed that we would hold off on that for now.
We wrapped up Thursday with another deep-dive into Placement; this time focusing on Generic Device Management, which has as its goal to be able to model all devices, not just PCI devices, as being attached to instances. This would involve the virt driver being able to report all such devices to the placement service in such as way as to correctly model any sort of nested relationships, and determine the inventory for each such item. Things began to get pretty specific, from the “I need a GPU” to “I need a particular GPU on a particular host”, which, in my opinion, is a cloud anti-pattern. One thing that stuck out for me was the request to be able to ask for multiple things of the same class, but each having a different trait. While this is certainly possible, it wasn’t one of the use cases considered when creating the queries that make placement work, and will require some more thought. There was much more discussed, and I think I wasn’t the only one whose brain was hurting afterwards. If you’re interested, you can read the notes from the session.
Friday was reserved for all the things that didn’t fit into one of the big topics covered on Wednesday or Thursday. You can see the variety of things covered on this etherpad, starting around line 189. We actually managed to get through the majority of those, as most people were able to stay for the last day of PTG. I’m not going to summarize them here, as that would make this post interminably long, but it was satisfying to accomplish as much as we did.
After the conference, my wife joined me, and we spent the weekend out in the nearby Rockies. We visited Rocky Mountain National Park, and to describe the views as breathtaking would be an understatement.
I would certainly say that the week was a success! It took me a few days upon returning to decompress after a week of intense meetings, but I think we laid the groundwork for a productive Queens release!
Last week was the first-ever OpenStack PTG (Project Teams Gathering), held in Atlanta, Georgia. Let’s start with the obvious: the name is terrible, which made it very hard to explain to people (read: management at your job) what it was supposed to be, and why it was important. “The Summit” and “The Midcycle” were both much better in that regard. Yes, there was plenty of material available on the website, but a catchier name would have helped.
But with that said, it was probably one of the most productive weeks I’ve had as a OpenStack developer. In previous gatherings there were always things that were in the way. The Summits were too “noisy”, with all the distractions of keynotes, marketplace, presentations, and business /marketing people all over the place. The midcycles were much more focused on developer issues, but since they were usually single-team events, that meant very little cross-project interaction. The PTG represented the best of both without their downsides. While I always enjoyed Summits, there was a bunch of stuff always going on that distracted from being able to focus on our work.
The first two days were devoted to cross-project matters, and the API Working Group sure fits that description, as our goal is to help all OpenStack projects develop clean, consistent APIs. So as a core member of the API-WG, I was prepared to spend most of my time in these discussions. However, on Monday morning our room was fairly empty, although this was probably due to the fact that we weren’t scheduled a room until the night before, so not many people knew about it. So we all pecked at our laptops for an hour or so, and then I just figured we’d start. The topic was the changes to the API stability guidelines to define what the assert:supports-api-compatibility tag a project could aim for. I outlined the basic points, and Chris Dent filled in some more details. I was afraid that it might end up being Chris and I doing most of the talking, but people started adding their own points of view on the matter. Before long the room became more crowded; I think the lively discussion attracted people (well, that and the sign that Chris added in the hallway!).
The gist of the discussion was just how strict we needed to be about when changing some aspect of a public API required a version change. Most of the people in the room that morning were of the opinion that while removing an API or changing the behavior of a call would certainly require a change, non-destructive changes like adding a new API call, or adding an additional field to a response, should be fine without a version change, since they shouldn’t break anything. I tried to make the argument for interop API stability, but I was outnumbered 🙂 Fortunately, I ran into the biggest (and loudest! 🙂 proponent for that, Monty Taylor, at lunch, and convinced him to come to the afternoon session and make his point of view heard clearly. And he did exactly that! By the end of the afternoon, we were all in agreement that any change to any API call requires a version increase, and so we will update the guidelines to reflect that.
Tuesday was another cross-project day, with discussions on hierachical quotas taking up a lot of the morning, followed by a Nova-Neutron session and another session with the Cinder folks on multi-attach. What was consistent across these sessions was a genuine desire to get things working better, without any of the finger-pointing that could certainly arise when two teams get together to figure out why things aren’t as smooth as they should be.
Wednesday began the team-specific sessions. Nova was given a huge, cavernous ballroom. It had a really bad echo, as well as constant fan noise from the air system, and so for someone like me with hearing loss, it was nearly impossible to hear anything. Wish I had worked on my lip reading!
We quickly decided to re-arrange the tables into a much more compact structure, which made it slightly better for discussions.
We had a full agenda, with topics such as cells V2, quotas, and the placement engine/API pretty much taking up Wednesday and Thursday. And like the cross-project days, it felt like we made solid progress. Anyone who had their doubts about this new format were convinced by now that the PTG was a big improvement! The discussions about Placement were especially helpful for me, because we went into the details of the complex nesting possibilities of NUMA cells and SR-IOV devices, and what the best way (if any) to effectively model them would be.
There was one dark spot on the event: my laptop died a horrible death! Thursday morning I opened the lid that I had closed a few hours earlier after an evening of email answering and Netflix watching, only to be greeted with this:
It had made a crackling sound as the screen displayed kernel panic output, so I unplugged the charger and closed the lid. After waiting several anxious minutes, I tried to turn the laptop on. Nothing. Dead. No response at all: no sound, no video… nothing. I tried again and again, using every magical keypress incantation I knew, and nothing. Time of death: 0730.
Sure, I still had my iPhone, but it’s really hard to do serious work that way. For one, etherpads simply don’t work in iOS browsers. It’s also very hard to see much of a conversation in an IRC client on such a small screen. All I could do was read email. So I spent the rest of the PTG feeling sorry for myself and my poor dead laptop. David Medberry lent me his keyboard-equipped Kindle for a while, and that was a bit better, but still, when you have a muscle-memory workflow, nothing will replace that.
The Foundation also arranged to have team photos taken during the PTG. You can see all the teams here, but I thought I’d include the Nova team photo here:
Right after the last session on Thursday was a feedback session for the OpenStack Foundation to get the attendees’ impressions of what went well, what was terrible, what should they keep doing, what should the never ever do again, and everything in between. In general, most people liked the PTG format, and felt that it was a very productive week. There were many complaints about the hotel setup (room size, noisy AC, etc.), as well as disappointment in the variety of meals and lack of snacks, but lots of praise for the continuous coffee!!
Thursday night was the Nova team dinner. We went to Ted’s Montana Grill, where we were greeted by a somewhat threatening slogan:
The staff wasn’t threatening at all, and quickly found tables for all of us. On the way through the restaurant we passed several other tables of Stackers, so I guess that this was a popular choice. We had a wonderful dinner, and on the walk home, Chet Burgess, whose parents still live in the Atlanta area, suggested we stop at the Westin hotel for a quick drink. That sounded great to me, so four of us went into the hotel. I was surprised that Chet walked right past the bar, and went to the elevators. Turns out that there is a rotating bar up on the 73rd floor! Here is the group of us going up the elevator:
It was dark in the bar area, so I couldn’t get a nice photo, but here’s a stock photo to give you an idea of what the bar looked like:
Big thanks to Chet for organizing the dinner and suggesting having drinks up in the heights of Atlanta!
Friday was a much lower-key day. Gone were the gigantic ballrooms, and down to the lower level of the hotel for the final day. Many people had left already, as many teams did not schedule 3 full days of sessions. The Nova team used the first part of the day to go over the Ocata retrospective to talk about what went well, what didn’t go so well, and how we can improve as we start working on Pike. The main points were that while communication among the developers was better, it still needed to improve. We also agreed on the need for more visual documentation of the logic flows within the code. The specs only describe the surface of the design, and many people (like myself) are visual learners, so we’ll try to get something like that done for the Placement logic so that everyone can better understand where we are and where we need to go.
I had to leave around 4pm on Friday to catch my flight home, so I headed to the ATL airport. While walking through the terminal I saw a group of men standing in one of the hallways, and recognized that one of them was Rep. John Lewis, one of the leaders of the Civil Rights movement along with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., whose birthplace and historic site I visited earlier in the week. I shook his hand, and thanked him for everything that he has done for this country. Immediately afterwards I texted my wife to tell her about it, and she chastised me for not getting a photo! I explained that I was too nervous to impose on him. A little while later I walked over to another part of the airport where I knew there was a restroom, since I had to empty my water bottle before going through security. When I got there, I saw some of the same group of men I had seen with Rep. Lewis earlier, but he was no longer among them. Then I looked over by the entrance to the men’s room, and I saw Rep. Lewis posing for a selfie with the janitor! I figured he wouldn’t mind taking one with me, so when he came out I apologized for bothering him again, and asked if he would mind a photo. He smiled and said it was no problem, so…
I admit that I was too excited to hold the phone very still! So a blurry photo is still better than no photo at all, right? I’ve met several famous people in my lifetime, but never one who has done as much to make the world a better place. And looking back, it was a fitting end to a week that involved the coming together of people of different nationalities, races, religions to help build a free and open software.
One of the more interesting design sessions today at the OpenStack Design Summit was focused on Nova Cells V2, which is the effort to rework the way cells work in Nova. Briefly, cells are a mechanism for allowing separate independent deployments to work as a single cloud, primarily as a way to provide horizontal scalability. They also have other uses for operators, but that’s the main reason for them. And as separate deployments, they have their own API service, conductor service, message queue, and database. There are several advantages that this kind of independence offers, with failure isolation being one of the biggest. By this I mean that something goes wrong and a cell is unreachable, it doesn’t affect the performance of the remaining cells.
There are tradeoffs with any approach, and this one is no different. One glaring issue that came up at that session is that there is no simple way to get a global view of your cloud. The example that was discussed was the common case of listing all your instances, which would require querying each cell independently, aggregating the results, and then sorting the aggregated records. For small clouds this process is negligible, but as the size grows, so does the overhead and complexity. It is particularly problematic for something that requires multiple calls, like pagination. Let’s consider a site with thousands of instances spread across dozens of cells. Typically when querying a large list like that, the API will return the first few, and include a link for the next batch. With a fragmented database, this will require some form of centralized caching approach, or, if that’s not feasible or the cache is stale, re-running the same costly query, aggregation, and sorting process for each page of data requested. With that, any gain that might have been realized by separating the databases will be more than offset by a need for a way to efficiently recombine that data. This isn’t only a cost for more memory/CPU for the API service to handle the aggregation and caching, which will only need to be borne by the larger cloud operating companies. It is an ongoing cost of complexity to the developers and maintainers of the Nova codebase to handle this, and every new part of Nova will be similarly difficult to fit.
There are other places where this fragmented database design will cause complexity, such as having the Scheduler require a database connection to every cell, and then query every cell on each request, followed by aggregating the results… see the pattern? Splitting a database to improve performance, or sharding, only makes sense if you shard along a line that logically separates the data so that each shard can be queried efficiently. We’re not doing that in the design of cells.
It’s not too late. There is a project that makes minimal changes to the oslo.db driver to allow replacing the SQLAlchemy and MySQL database that underpins Nova with a distributed database (they used Redis, but it doesn’t depend on Redis). It should really be investigated further before we create a huge pile of technical and design debt by fragmenting the data in Nova.
I’ve written severalblogposts about my ideas for improving OpenStack, with a particular emphasis on the Nova Scheduler. This week at the OpenStack Summit in Austin, there were two other proposals put forth. So at least I’m not the only one thinking about this stuff!
At the Tuesday keynote, Intel demonstrated a version of OpenStack that was completely re-written in Go. They demonstrated creating 10,000 containers and 5,000 VMs in under a minute. Pretty impressive, right? Well, yeah, except they gave no idea of what parts of Nova were supported, and what was left out. How were all those VMs scheduled? What sort of logging was done to help operators diagnose their sites? None of this was shown or even discussed. It didn’t seem to be a serious proposal for moving OpenStack forward; instead, it seemed that it was a demo with a lot of sizzle designed to simply wake up a dormant community, and make people think that Intel has the keys to our future. But for me, the question was always the same one I deal with when I’m thinking about these matters: how do you get from the current OpenStack to what they were showing? Something tells me that rather than being a path forward, this represents a brand-new project, with no way for existing deployments to migrate without starting all over. So yeah, kudos on the demo, but I didn’t see anything directly useful in it. Of course Go would be faster for concurrent tasks; that’s what the language was designed for!
The other project was presented by a team of researchers from Inria in France who are aiming to build a massively-distributed cloud with OpenStack. Instead of starting from scratch as Intel did, they instead created a driver for oslo.db that mimicked SQLAlchemy, and used Redis as the datastore. It’s ironic, since the first iteration of Nova used Redis, and it was felt back then that Redis wasn’t up to the task, so it was replaced by MySQL. (Side note: some of my first commits were for removing Redis from Nova!) And being researchers, they meticulously measured the performance, and when sites were distributed, over 80% of the queries performed better than with MySQL. This is an interesting project that I intend on following in the future, as it actually has a chance of ever becoming part of OpenStack, unlike the Intel project.
I still hold out hope that one day we can free ourselves of the constraints of having to fit all resources that OpenStack will ever have to deal with into a static SQL model, but until then, I’m happy with whatever incremental improvements we can make. It was obvious from this Summit that there are a lot of very smart people thinking about these issues, too, and that fills me with hope for the long-term health of OpenStack.